Expulsion of Azerbaijanis from their lands in the Soviet period

During World War II the Armenian Dashnak leaders including Mikoyan “had acted tow sided for "Great Armenia” idea. On the one hand, they believed in Hitler's victory in the Transcaucasus and offered him the establishment of 2 states - the Armenian and Georgian states here. At the same time they wanted to annex the lands of Azerbaijan. But on the other hand, if the victory will be on the Soviet Union side, they mad a plan to annex Turkey’s Kars province and adjacent areas to Armenia. In both cases they attempted to deport Azerbaijanis from Transcaucasia to Central Asia and Siberia.


The first step in this plan was reflected in Tehran (28XI-01XII1943) of Allied Forces. The Armenians could make them to achieve agreement on resettlement of Armenians abroad to Soviet Armenia.


The purpose was to annex lands from Turkey and to deport Azerbaijanis from Armenia and replace them with Armenians living abroad. The Armenians influenced on the Soviet government in order to achieve the first purpose.


The Soviet government issued a Note to the Republic of Turkey (1945) and demanded the above-mentioned area (26.4 sq km) and control of the Straits. This situation might cause World War III between the Soviet Union and Turkey. Stalin seeing the great danger refused this demand. Thus, the Armenians have failed in this goal. When to get lands from Turkey became a difficult issue Armenians turned their face to Soviet Azerbaijan. In November 1945, the Armenian Communist Party secretary G. Arutyunov in his letter to Stalin requested him to give Garabagh to the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Stalin directed that letter to K.M.Malenkov and he in turn send to the leadership of Azerbaijan. In response to that letter Mirjafar Bagirov stated that Azerbaijan does not object to this proposal, provided that the Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR and Dagestan ASSR should return to Azerbaijan SSR the territories of compact living of Azerbaijanis and adjacent territories, which once were historical parts of Azerbaijan (Zangezur, Goycha, Borchali, Derbent, and etc.). Thus, the next attempt of Armenians failed.


After failed attempt to unite Garabagh with the Armenian SSR the Soviet government decided on the organization of resettlement of Armenians living abroad to Soviet Armenia in November 1945, taking into account the application of Soviet Armenia. As a result of first propaganda 130 thousand Armenians were shifted to Soviet Armenia. The foreign Armenian organizations ("Hnchak", "Ramkavar" parties, All-Armenian Union of Chary) spent $ 1 million fro this resettlement. At 1st migration course more than 90 thousand Armenians (50.9 thousand in 1946, 35.4 thousand in 1947) resettled here. For political purposes the Soviet Armenian government deliberately delayed their accommodation. They had to wait for weeks at the railway stations. They used a pretext as if there were no conditions for displaced persons. So, the government of Armenia found the solution in deportation of Azerbaijanis. And Moscow agreed on Armenian reckless scheme. On December 23, 1947, on behalf of USSR Council of Ministers Stalin adopted a decision No 4083 "On resettlement of collective farmers and other Azerbaijani population from the Armenian SSR to Kur-Araz lowland of Azerbaijan SSR". On February 2, 1948 the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR adopted a decision on the relevant resettlement.


To clarify the above-mentioned decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR in March 10, 1948 the second decision was adopted. As there was no introduction and explanation in previous decision. However, the decisions of the government of the USSR, as well as government of Azerbaijan were non-objective decisions and were not in conformity with real truth and existing then circumstances.


In decision of December 23, 1947 it was stated that in the years 1948-1950, on the "voluntary" basis 100 thousand collective farmer living in the Armenian SSR and other Azerbaijani population to be resettled in the Azerbaijan SSR to Kur-Araz lowland. Thus, following deportation of the Azerbaijani population from the West Azerbaijan began. This deportation was 7th deportation and massacre of Azerbaijani population of the West Azerbaijan in the last two centuries (1828,1856,1878,1905-1907,1918-1920,1937-1938,1948-1953). As a result of this massacre and deportation 150,000 people from the Armenian SSR was scattered in Kur-Araz lowland of Azerbaijan SSR and hardly in other regions. As a result, 50,000 people were killed. And after Stalin's death 50,000 people returned to their destroyed homes and could restore their livings in ancient motherlands. This event was also a part of the next genocide.


For the years 1948-1953-the "voluntary" resettlement was to be carried out in three phases: the first phase- 1948-1950, in 1951-1952 Phase II, and III Phase in 1953. The initial results of the first phase failed. The majority of the population, especially the elderly and the children moved Mughan got in mass various infectious diseases and mass mortality occurred due to the weather and poor living conditions. Knowing this fact the Azerbaijani population that was not driven out was in desperate situation. Disadvantaged population requested to settle them in the mountainous regions of Azerbaijan, in particular, in Nagorno-Qarabagh, but they could not achieve it.


However, some villages of Pambak area, Baran district (Noyemberyan) Lambali, Korpulu, etc with difficulty could get permission for settlement in the Kazakh region of Azerbaijan SSR.


But the people were accommodated in tents and wagons in Jeyran Chol. Many displaced persons, used to dig ground and make shelter as sheep but living environment was very miserable. The government was unable to arrange a new settlement. The population had to scatter to villages of Borchalı and Kazakh. Even some people went back to their villages in Armenia. However, the state inventoried their homes and distributed to Armenians arriving from abroad. Even the owners of the empty houses were not allowed in. The population of the Lambali village of Noyemberyan region had built temporary homes and lived there until the death of Stalin. Only after a letter of response from Khrushov Lambali people were accommodated into empty homes.


But the fate of Azerbaijani scattered in Borchali villages was more miserable. In the autumn of 1951 they were deported to Kazakhstan in trains. In connection with the resettlement then leaders of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (M.J.Bagırov, T. Guliyev, N. Heydarov) fell in deadlock. The level of economic and cultural life of the Azerbaijani people at that time was much lower level compared to other Transcaucasian republics. To resettle 100,000 people within a short time was not easy problem. But it was the will of "father of nations" - Stalin.


During the last years of the power of N. Khrushov the "Great Armenia" idea was put forward in an agenda of Soviet administration at the initiative of Mikoyan. Misusing the agriculture policy of Khrushov- the policy of the USSR on the division of economic regions, Mikoyan suggested that the unification of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic to Armenian SSR was important for development of the economy in Armenian SSR and Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. Khrushsov gave this proposal to the discussion of the Azerbaijani intelligentsia and as a result this attempt was unsuccessful.


Some stability was formed in Armenia in relation to Azerbaijanis living there. At the same time sharp and just actions against the pro-Stalinist leaders of the Republic increased the responsibility and any extremist movement was prevented. However, as the 50th anniversary of "METS YEGERN" so called “Great genocide” of the Armenians became closer, the territorial claims, bad attitude to Turks began to increase. In particular, after the Crimea was unified with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic the extremists demands rose here in a wide scale.


During 1962-1963 when issues in connection with applications sent to Moscow with land claims to Azerbaijan and Turkey were discussed at the Bureau of Communist Party of Armenia at secret conversations such facts were revealed that the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR A.I.Mikoyan had raised a question of unification of Nagorno-Qarabagh Autonomous Oblast with the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic before N.S.Khrushov, and in the response Khrushov said that the he can provide sufficient number of military vehicles and to order for resettlement of Armenians from Nagorno-Qarabagh to Armenia just during one night. Of course, such a sharp reaction had an impact.


However, the disposal of N.S.Khrushov from power in 1964 broke a temporary silence. The preparatory works for marking of the 50th anniversary of so called event”METS YEGERN" were intensified. By holding this event the aim of Dashnak party and other reactionary-nationalist parties operating in foreign countries coincides with activity of the leadership of the Armenian SSR, and propaganda work carried out on both sides focused on this goal. Thus, it is claimed that the Turkish government and people should bear responsibility for this “genocide” and ancient eternal Armenian lands are to be re-united and the "Great Armenia" state should be established.


The idea of annexing of Bogdanovka region of Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, as well as the bordering regions, the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic and the Nagorno-Qarabagh Autonomous Oblast, a great part of the Republic of Turkey - Ardahan, Trabzon, Kars, Bitlis, Van provinces to Armenia was sounded both at the official circles of Armenia, as well as the by people, and resolutions, appeals were adopted in this regard. In all the labor collectives, kolkhoz and sovkhoz, universities and secondary schools, even at primary classes such campaigns are held, and appeals to hold 50th anniversary of “METS YEGERN" with unity and unanimity of the Armenian people at a high level are sounded, films inspiring a feeling of hate against the Turks are demonstrated and books were published. In mass media the wisdom of the Armenian people, idea that the neighboring nations were migrants and non-aboriginal is propagated and articles are published and radio and TV programs were organized.


By the way it should be noted that in 1965 a secret army of Armenian terror "ASALA" was already formed. Even the command of the organization had prepared a plan to arrange massacre of Turks on April 24 for 50th anniversary of "METS YEGERN» and 100th anniversary of birthday of "people hero" Ozanian Andronik (April 24, 1965). According to plan’s program, on April 24, armed groups had to attacked Azerbaijani villages in Armenia and kill the civilian population in mass. At the same time, the destructive action at the borders of Turkey, attacks and massacres were planned, too. At that time the radio and television should relay the information to all over the world, as if armed Azerbaijanis attacked Armenian villages and to help them Turkish army broke the border and attacked Soviet border guards. By this plan "ASALA" hoped that the Soviet Army will join the conflict and using this suitable moment Armenia could get lands from Turkey - Kars, Ardahan, Igdir provinces, etc.


Vigilant on this point of the plan the people sent telegrams to Moscow from Georgia and Azerbaijan. The state was forced to take emergency action. In all Armenian and Azerbaijani villages the militia and guards, soldiers were deployed and the army was given the task to be vigilant. The Armenians were forced to leave this offensive plan. However, as mentioned above, in Lenin Square in Yerevan the rally was held. When the order from military unit came on leaving the Square, the demonstrators headed by the priest Vazgen had taken off their shoes and marched to Echmiadzin Church (more than 30 km of road). In the next days, especially on 23-24-25 April of 1965, the actions reached its highest point. The Armenian population of the city of Yerevan went on streets, and moved to place of erection of "Genocide" memorial in the memory of the victims so called “genocide”. Together with the cathalicos the leaders of republic also marched to the memorial. Symbolic coffin covered with black cloth was carried on the heads of the mass and the slogans with words “Great Armenia", "To return territories to Armenia!", "Revenge!" were carried out.


After this event, the Azerbaijani population of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic begun to be suppressed, especially in Yerevan, Leninakan, Kirovakan, Gafan Azerbaijanis were assaulted and insulted in buses, markets, public places.


Azerbaijanis (in particular, from Gugark region) had warned Moscow with application, telegrams, but also sent a representative. Thus, the complaint of the Azerbaijanis was discussed at Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Soviet CP; "the state of international education" in Gugark region was reviewed and recommendations to improve international education were given. But no one was punished at the Republican level. Only the first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Armenia Y. Zarobian was dismissed and in February 1966 was appointed as Deputy Minister of the Electrical Industry of the USSR. The terrible life of Azerbaijanis living in Armenia remained as it was.

Unfortunately, 9 deportation and genocide actions committed by Armenians for many years due to adventurous policy of tsarist Russia and the USSR against Azerbaijani Turks living in Western Armenia could not get its political evaluation on a global scale.


After being defeated in struggle with Turkey and Azerbaijan for purposes of land annexation the Armenians had to change their tactics. One of the ways of this struggle was terrorism with the old tactics, and the other collection the money for "Great Armenia" idea. It should be noted that the Armenian Dashnak party is the only party on the Earth that gives the place to terrorism in its charter. And they achieve certain goals with terrorism.


And money for "Poor Armenian people" is collected from the donations of the Armenian Diaspora abroad, and those Armenians living in the USSR.


In addition, money is collected from various social organizations in the USSR (the protection of historical monuments, environmental protection, etc.) on behalf of the various public organizations. And those Armenians that refused to pay for “Great Armenia", were punished. It is confirmed with events in Sumgait in February 28-29, 1988 and the events of January 13-17, 1990 in Baku. In the actions prepared by the Armenians the Armenians that did not pay for "Great Armenia" fund were killed, as well as the investigation determined that the actions were committed by the Armenians, with the consent of Moscow.


The money collected was deposited in foreign banks in the name of the Echmiadzin Church. In 1965, while marking the 50th anniversary of false "Armenian genocide" Armenians openly announced that 40 billion U.S dollars was collected for the "Great Armenia" idea. They did acknowledge that the purpose of money collecting is to get "Armenian" lands from Turkey and Iran (mean South Azerbaijan). Just with this money dashnaks had set a terrorist Armenian army "ASALA".


In the Soviet Union the first activities of "ASALA" was Moscow metro explosion, theft of weapons from military warehouse in Armenia, the Armenian pogroms in Sumgait and Baku, the pogroms of Ahiska Turks in Uzbekistan under the leadership of the responsible USSR Prosecutor's Office employee Gdlyan, Masis and Guqark massacres and other facts can be mentioned.